ITIL® Glossary

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ITIL® Glossary

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ITIL Glossar

Service Management - technical terms explained!

The glossary defines and explains all the technical terms of the Service Management environment . Basis of the declarations is the globally accepted service management framework ITIL in the current version.

Access Management
[Access Management] - (Service Operation) The Process responsible for allowing Users to make use of IT Services, data, or other Assets. Access Management helps to protect the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of Assets by ensuring that only authorized Users are able to access or modify the Assets. Access Management is sometimes referred to as Rights Management or Identity Management.

[Activity]- A set of actions designed to achieve a particular result. Activities are usually defined as part of Processes or Plans, and are documented in Procedures.

[Alert] - (Service Operation) A warning that a threshold has been reached, something has changed, or a Failure has occurred. Alerts are often created and managed by System Management tools and are managed by the Event Management Process.

Application Management
(Service Design) A database or structured Document used to manage Applications throughout their Lifecycle. The Application Portfolio contains key Attributes of all Applications. The Application Portfolio is sometimes implemented as part of the Service Portfolio, or as part of the Configuration Management System.

Application Sizing
[Requirement] -(Service Design) An External Service Provider that provides IT Services using Applications running at the Service Provider's premises. Users access the Applications by network connections to the Service Provider.

[Application Management] - (Service Strategy) Any Resource or Capability. Assets of a Service Provider include anything that could contribute to the delivery of a Service. Assets can be one of the following types: Management, Organisation, Process, Knowledge, People, Information, Applications, Infrastructure, and Financial Capital.

(Service Design) Ability of a Configuration Item or IT Service to perform its agreed Function when required. Availability is determined by Reliability, Maintainability, Serviceability, Performance, and Security. Availability is usually calculated as a percentage. This calculation is often based on Agreed Service Time and Downtime. It is Best Practice to calculate Availability using measurements of the Business output of the IT Service.

Availability Management
[Availability Management] - (Service Design) (Service Design) The Process responsible for defining, analysing, Planning, measuring and improving all aspects of the Availability of IT Services. Availability Management is responsible for ensuring that all IT Infrastructure, Processes, Tools, Roles etc are appropriate for the agreed Service Level Targets for Availability.

Availability Plan
(Verfügbarkeitsplan) [Availability Plan] - (Service Design) A Plan to ensure that existing and future Availability Requirements for IT Services can be provided Cost Effectively.

[Baseline] - (Continual Service Improvement) A Benchmark used as a reference point. For example: An ITSM Baseline can be used as a starting point to measure the effect of a Service Improvement Plan. A Performance Baseline can be used to measure changes in Performance over the lifetime of an IT Service. A Configuration Management Baseline can be used to enable the IT Infrastructure to be restored to a known Configuration if a Change or Release fails.

[Build] - (Service Transition) The Activity of assembling a number of Configuration Items to create part of an IT Service. The term Build is also used to refer to a Release that is authorised for distribution. For example Server Build or laptop Build.

Business Capacity Management (BCM)
[Business Capacity Management (BCM)] - (Service Design) In the context of ITSM, Business Capacity Management is the Activity responsible for understanding future Business Requirements for use in the Capacity Plan.

Business Impact Analysis
[Business Impact Analysis] - ((Service Strategy) BIA is the Activity in Business Continuity Management that identifies Vital Business Functions and their dependencies. These dependencies may include Suppliers, people, other Business Processes, IT Services etc. BIA defines the recovery requirements for IT Services. These requirements include Recovery Time Objectives, Recovery Point Objectives and minimum Service Level Targets for each IT Service.

Business Process
[Business Process] - (Service Strategy) A Process that is owned and carried out by the Business. A Business Process contributes to the delivery of a product or Service to a Business Customer. For example, a retailer may have a purchasing Process which helps to deliver Services to their Business Customers. Many Business Processes rely on IT Services.

Business Relationship Management
[Business Relationship Management] - (Service Strategy) The Process or Function responsible for maintaining a Relationship with the Business. BRM usually includes: Managing personal Relationships with Business managers, Providing input to Service Portfolio Management, Ensuring that the IT Service Provider is satisfying the Business needs of the Customers. This Process has strong links with Service Level Management.

Business Service Management
[Business Service Management] - (Service Strategy) (Service Design) An IT Service that directly supports a Business Process, as opposed to an Infrastructure Service which is used internally by the IT Service Provider and is not usually visible to the Business. The term Business Service is also used to mean a Service that is delivered to Business Customers by Business Units. For example delivery of financial services to Customers of a bank, or goods to the Customers of a retail store. Successful delivery of Business Services often depends on one or more IT Services.

Capability Maturity Model
[Capability Maturity Model] - (Continual Service Improvement) The Capability Maturity Model for Software (also known as the CMM and SW-CMM) is a model used to identify Best Practices to help increase Process Maturity. CMM was developed at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) of Carnegie Mellon University. In 2000, the SW-CMM was upgraded to CMMI® (Capability Maturity Model Integration). The SEI no longer maintains the SW-CMM model, its associated appraisal methods, or training materials.

Capacity Management
[Capacity Management] - (Service Design) The Process responsible for ensuring that the Capacity of IT Services and the IT Infrastructure is able to deliver agreed Service Level Targets in a Cost Effective and timely manner. Capacity Management considers all Resources required to deliver the IT Service, and plans for short, medium and long term Business Requirements.

Capacity Management Information System
[Capacity Management Information System] - (Service Design) A virtual repository of all Capacity Management data, usually stored in multiple physical locations. See Service Knowledge Management System.

Capacity Plan
[Capacity Plan] - (Service Design) A Capacity Plan is used to manage the Resources required to deliver IT Services. The Plan contains scenarios for different predictions of Business demand, and costed options to deliver the agreed Service Level Targets.

Capacity Planning
[Capacity Planning] - (Service Design) Activity within Capacity Management responsible for creating a Capacity Plan.

[Category] - A named group of things that have something in common. Categories are used to group similar things together. For example Cost Types are used to group similar types of Cost. Incident Categories are used to group similar types of Incident, CI Types are used to group similar types of Configuration Item.

[Change] - (Service Transition) The addition, modification or removal of anything that could have an effect on IT Services. The Scope should include all IT Services, Configuration Items, Processes, Documentation etc.

Change Request (Change-Antrag)
[Change Request] - Synonym für Request for Change.

Change Advisory Board
[Change Advisory Board] -(Service Transition) A group of people that advises the Change Manager in the Assessment, prioritisation and scheduling of Changes. This board is usually made up of representatives from all areas within the IT Service Provider, the Business, and Third Parties such as Suppliers.

Change Management
[Change Management] - (Service Transition) The Process responsible for controlling the Lifecycle of all Changes. The primary objective of Change Management is to enable beneficial Changes to be made, with minimum disruption to IT Services.

Change Request
[Change Request] - Synonym for Request for Change.

Change Schedule
[Change Schedule] - (Service Design) (Service Transition) A Document that lists all approved Changes and their planned implementation dates. A Change Schedule is sometimes called a Forward Schedule of Change, even though it also contains information about Changes that have already been implemented.

CI Type
[CI Type] - ((Service Transition) A Category that is used to Classify CIs. The CI Type identifies the required Attributes and Relationships for a Configuration Record. Common CI Types include: hardware, Document, User etc.

[Classification] - The act of assigning a Category to something. Classification is used to ensure consistent management and reporting. CIs, Incidents, Problems, Changes etc. are usually classified.

[Configuration Item (Closure] - ((Service Operation) The act of changing the Status of an Incident, Problem, Change etc. to Closed.

Cold Standby
[Cold Standby] - Synonym for Gradual Recovery.

Component Capacity Management
[Component Capacity Management] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) The Process responsible for understanding the Capacity, Utilisation, and Performance of Configuration Items. Data is collected, recorded and analysed for use in the Capacity Plan. See Service Capacity Management.

Component Failure Impact Analysis
[Component Failure Impact Analysis] - (Service Design) A technique that helps to identify the impact of CI failure on IT Services. A matrix is created with IT Services on one edge and CIs on the other. This enables the identification of critical CIs (that could cause the failure of multiple IT Services) and of fragile IT Services (that have multiple Single Points of Failure).

[Confidentiality] - (Service Design) A security principle that requires that data should only be accessed by authorised people.

Configuration Baseline
[Configuration Baseline] -(Service Transition) A Baseline of a Configuration that has been formally agreed and is managed through the Change Management process. A Configuration Baseline is used as a basis for future Builds, Releases and Changes.

Configuration Item
[Configuration Item] -(Service Transition) Component that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT Service. Information about each CI is recorded in a Configuration Record within the Configuration Management System and is maintained throughout its Lifecycle by Configuration Management. CIs are under the control of Change Management. CIs typically include IT Services, hardware, software, buildings, people, and formal documentation such as Process documentation and SLAs.

Configuration Management
[Configuration Management] -(Service Transition) The Process responsible for maintaining information about Configuration Items required to deliver an IT Service, including their Relationships. This information is managed throughout the Lifecycle of the CI. Configuration Management is part of an overall Service Asset and Configuration Management Process.

Configuration Management Database
[Configuration Management Database] -(Service Transition) A database used to store Configuration Records throughout their Lifecycle. The Configuration Management System maintains one or more CMDBs, and each CMDB stores Attributes of CIs, and Relationships with other Cis.

[CRAMM] -A methodology and tool for analysing and managing Risks. CRAMM was developed by the UK Government, but is now privately owned. Further information is available from

Critical Success Factor
[Critical Success Factor -Something that must happen if a Process, Project, Plan, or IT Service is to succeed. KPIs are used to measure the achievement of each CSF. For example a CSF of "protect IT Services when making Changes" could be measured by KPIs such as "percentage reduction of unsuccessful Changes", "percentage reduction in Changes causing Incidents" etc.

Definitive Media Library
[Definitive Media Library] - (Service Transition) One or more locations in which the definitive and approved versions of all software Configuration Items are securely stored. The DML may also contain associated CIs such as licenses and documentation. The DML is a single logical storage area even if there are multiple locations. All software in the DML is under the control of Change and Release Management and is recorded in the Configuration Management System. Only software from the DML is acceptable for use in a Release.

Demand Management
[Demand Management] - Activities that understand and influence Customer demand for Services and the provision of Capacity to meet these demands. At a Strategic level Demand Management can involve analysis of Patterns of Business Activity and User Profiles. At a Tactical level it can involve use of Differential Charging to encourage Customers to use IT Services at less busy times. See Capacity Management.

Direct Cost
[Direct Cost] - (Service Strategy) cost of providing an IT Service which can be allocated in full to a specific Customer, Cost Centre, Project etc. For example cost of providing non-shared servers or software licenses. See Indirect Cost.

[Downtime] - (Service Design) (Service Operation) The time when a Configuration Item or IT Service is not Available during its Agreed Service Time. The Availability of an IT Service is often calculated from Agreed Service Time and Downtime.

Emergency Change Advisory Board
[Emergency Change Advisory Board] - (Service Transition) A sub-set of the Change Advisory Board who make decisions about high impact Emergency Changes. Membership of the ECAB may be decided at the time a meeting is called, and depends on the nature of the Emergency Change.

[Escalation] - (Service Operation) An Activity that obtains additional Resources when these are needed to meet Service Level Targets or Customer expectations. Escalation may be needed within any IT Service Management Process, but is most commonly associated with Incident Management, Problem Management and the management of Customer complaints. There are two types of Escalation, Functional Escalation and Hierarchic Escalation.

[Event] - (Service Operation) A change of state which has significance for the management of a Configuration Item or IT Service. The term Event is also used to mean an Alert or notification created by any IT Service, Configuration Item or Monitoring tool. Events typically require IT Operations personnel to take actions, and often lead to Incidents being logged.

Event Management
[Event Management] - Service Operation) The Process responsible for managing Events throughout their Lifecycle. Event Management is one of the main Activities of IT Operations.

Fault Tree Analysis
[Fault Tree Analysis] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A technique that can be used to determine the chain of Events that leads to a Problem. Fault Tree Analysis represents a chain of Events using Boolean notation in a diagram.

Financial Management
[Financial Management] - (Service Strategy) The Function and Processes responsible for managing an IT Service Provider's Budgeting, Accounting and Charging Requirements.

Functional Escalation
[Functional Escalation] -(Service Operation) Transferring an Incident, Problem or Change to a technical team with a higher level of expertise to assist in an Escalation.

Hierarchic Escalation
[Hierarchic Escalation] - (Service Operation) Informing or involving more senior levels of management to assist in an Escalation.

Immediate Recovery
[Incident] - (Service Design) A Recovery Option which is also known as Hot Standby. Provision is made to Recover the IT Service with no loss of Service. Immediate Recovery typically uses mirroring, load balancing and split site technologies.

[Incident Management] - (Service Operation) (Service Transition) A measure of the effect of an Incident, Problem or Change on Business Processes. Impact is often based on how Service Levels will be affected. Impact and Urgency are used to assign Priority.

[Incident] - Service Operation) An unplanned interruption to an IT Service or a reduction in the Quality of an IT Service. Failure of a Configuration Item that has not yet impacted Service is also an Incident. For example Failure of one disk from a mirror set.

Incident Management
[Incident Management] - (Service Operation) The Process responsible for managing the Lifecycle of all Incidents. The primary Objective of Incident Management is to return the IT Service to Users as quickly as possible.

Incident Record
[Incident Record] - (Service Operation) Record containing the details of an Incident. Each Incident record documents the Lifecycle of a single Incident.

Information Security Management
[Information Security Management] - (Service Design) The Process that ensures the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of an Organisation's Assets, information, data and IT Services. Information Security Management usually forms part of an Organisational approach to Security Management which has a wider scope than the IT Service Provider, and includes handling of paper, building access, phone calls etc., for the entire Organisation.

ISO/IEC 20000
[ISO/IEC 20000] - ISO Specification and Code of Practice for IT Service Management. ISO/IEC 20000 is aligned with ITIL Best Practice.

ISO/IEC 27001
[ISO/IEC 27001] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) ISO Specification for Information Security Management. The corresponding Code of Practice is ISO/IEC 17799.

IT Service Continuity Management
[IT Service Continuity Management] - (Service Design) The Process responsible for managing Risks that could seriously impact IT Services. ITSCM ensures that the IT Service Provider can always provide minimum agreed Service Levels, by reducing the Risk to an acceptable level and Planning for the Recovery of IT Services. ITSCM should be designed to support Business Continuity Management.

IT Service Continuity Plan
[IT Service Continuity Plan] - (Service Design) A Plan defining the steps required to Recover one or more IT Services. The Plan will also identify the triggers for Invocation, people to be involved, communications etc. The IT Service Continuity Plan should be part of a Business Continuity Plan.

Key Performance Indicator
[Key Performance Indicator] - (Continual Service Improvement) A Metric that is used to help manage a Process, IT Service or Activity. Many Metrics may be measured, but only the most important of these are defined as KPIs and used to actively manage and report on the Process, IT Service or Activity. KPIs should be selected to ensure that Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Cost Effectiveness are all managed. See Critical Success Factor.

Knowledge Base
[Knowledge Base] - (Service Transition) A logical database containing the data used by the Service Knowledge Management System.

KKnowledge Management
[Knowledge Management] - (Service Transition) The Process responsible for gathering, analysing, storing and sharing knowledge and information within an Organisation. The primary purpose of Knowledge Management is to improve Efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge.

Known Error
[Known Error] - (Service Operation) A Problem that has a documented Root Cause and a Workaround. Known Errors are created and managed throughout their Lifecycle by Problem Management. Known Errors may also be identified by Development or Suppliers.

Kritischer Erfolgsfaktor (Critical Success Factor, CSF)
[Critical Success Factor (CSF)] - Ein Bestandteil, das für einen erfolgreichen Prozess, (ein erfolgreiches) Projekt, Plan oder IT Service erforderlich ist. Um das Erreichen eines CSF zu messen, werden KPIs eingesetzt. Ein CSF in Bezug auf den „Schutz von IT Services bei der Durchführung von Changes“ könnte von KPIs wie „Verringerung des Anteils nicht erfolgreicher Changes“ und „Verringerung der Changes, die Incidents verursachen, in Prozent“ etc. gemessen werden.

[Maintainability] - (Service Design) A measure of how quickly and Effectively a Configuration Item or IT Service can be restored to normal working after a Failure. Maintainability is often measured and reported as MTRS. Maintainability is also used in the context of Software or IT Service Development to mean ability to be Changed or Repaired easily.

Management of Risk
[Management of Risk]- The OGC methodology for managing Risks. MoR includes all the Activities required to identify and Control the exposure to Risk which may have an impact on the achievement of an Organisation’s Business Objectives. See for more details.

Mean Time Between Failures
[Mean Time Between Failures] - (Service Design) A Metric for measuring and reporting Reliability. MTBF is the average time that a Configuration Item or IT Service can perform its agreed Function without interruption. This is measured from when the CI or IT Service starts working, until it next fails.

Mean Time Between Service Incidents
[Mean Time Between Service Incidents] - (Service Design) A Metric used for measuring and reporting Reliability. MTBSI is the mean time from when a System or IT Service fails, until it next fails. MTBSI is equal to MTBF + MTRS.

Mean Time To Repair
[Mean Time To Repair] - The average time taken to repair a Configuration Item or IT Service after a Failure. MTTR is measured from when the CI or IT Service fails until it is Repaired. MTTR does not include the time required to Recover or Restore. MTTR is sometimes incorrectly used to mean Mean Time to Restore Service.

Mean Time to Restore Service
[Mean Time to Restore Service] - The average time taken to Restore a Configuration Item or IT Service after a Failure. MTRS is measured from when the CI or IT Service fails until it is fully Restored and delivering its normal functionality. See Maintainability, Mean Time to Repair.

[Modelling] - A technique that is used to predict the future behaviour of a System, Process, IT Service, Configuration Item etc. Modelling is commonly used in Financial Management, Capacity Management and Availability Management.

Operational Level Agreement
[Operational Level Agreement] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) An Agreement between an IT Service Provider and another part of the same Organisation. An OLA supports the IT Service Provider's delivery of IT Services to Customers. The OLA defines the goods or Services to be provided and the responsibilities of both parties. For example there could be an OLA between the IT Service Provider and a procurement department to obtain hardware in agreed times, and between the Service Desk and a Support Group to provide Incident Resolution in agreed times.

[Plan-Do-Check-Act] - (Continual Service Improvement) A four stage cycle for Process management, attributed to Edward Deming. Plan-Do-Check-Act is also called the Deming Cycle. PLAN: Design or revise Processes that support the IT Services. DO: Implement the Plan and manage the Processes. CHECK: Measure the Processes and IT Services, compare with Objectives and produce reports ACT: Plan and implement Changes to improve the Processes.

Post Implementation Review
[Post Implementation Review] -A Review that takes place after a Change or a Project has been implemented. A PIR determines if the Change or Project was successful, and identifies opportunities for improvement.

[Priority] - (Service Transition) (Service Operation) A Category used to identify the relative importance of an Incident, Problem or Change. Priority is based on Impact and Urgency, and is used to identify required times for actions to be taken. For example the SLA may state that Priority2 Incidents must be resolved within 12 hours.

Proactive Problem Management
[Proactive Problem Management] - (Service Operation) Part of the Problem Management Process. The Objective of Proactive Problem Management is to identify Problems that might otherwise be missed. Proactive Problem Management analyses Incident Records, and uses data collected by other IT Service Management Processes to identify trends or significant Problems.

[Problem] - (Service Operation) A cause of one or more Incidents. The cause is not usually known at the time a Problem Record is created, and the Problem Management Process is responsible for further investigation.

Problem Management
[Problem Management] - (Service Operation) The Process responsible for managing the Lifecycle of all Problems. The primary Objectives of Problem Management are to prevent Incidents from happening, and to minimise the Impact of Incidents that cannot be prevented.

[RACI] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A Model used to help define Roles and Responsibilities. RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed. See Stakeholder.

[Relationship] - A connection or interaction between two people or things. In Business Relationship Management it is the interaction between the IT Service Provider and the Business. In Configuration Management it is a link between two Configuration Items that identifies a dependency or connection between them. For example Applications may be linked to the Servers they run on, IT Services have many links to all the CIs that contribute to them.

[Release] (Service Transition) A collection of hardware, software, documentation, Processes or other Components required to implement one or more approved Changes to IT Services. The contents of each Release are managed, Tested, and Deployed as a single entity.

Release and Deployment Managementt
[Release and Deployment Management] - (Service Transition) The Process responsible for both Release Management and Deployment.

Release Management
[Release Management] - (Service Transition) The Process responsible for Planning, scheduling and controlling the movement of Releases to Test and Live Environments. The primary Objective of Release Management is to ensure that the integrity of the Live Environment is protected and that the correct Components are released. Release Management is part of the Release and Deployment Management Process.

Release Unit
[Release Unit] - (Service Transition) Components of an IT Service that are normally Released together. A Release Unit typically includes sufficient Components to perform a useful Function. For example one Release Unit could be a Desktop PC, including Hardware, Software, Licenses, Documentation etc. A different Release Unit may be the complete Payroll Application, including IT Operations Procedures and User training.

[Reliability] (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A measure of how long a Configuration Item or IT Service can perform its agreed Function without interruption. Usually measured as MTBF or MTBSI. The term Reliability can also be used to state how likely it is that a Process, Function etc. will deliver its required outputs. See Availability.

Request for Change
[Request for Change] (Service Transition) A formal proposal for a Change to be made. An RFC includes details of the proposed Change, and may be recorded on paper or electronically. The term RFC is often misused to mean a Change Record, or the Change itself.

Request Fulfilment
[Request Fulfilment] (Service Operation) The Process responsible for managing the Lifecycle of all Service Requests.

[Requirement] (Service Design) A formal statement of what is needed. For example a Service Level Requirement, a Project Requirement or the required Deliverables for a Process.

[Restore] (Service Operation) Taking action to return an IT Service to the Users after Repair and Recovery from an Incident. This is the primary Objective of Incident Management.

Root Cause
[Root Cause] (Service Operation) The underlying or original cause of an Incident or Problem.

Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
[Root Cause Analysis (RCA)] (Service Operation) An Activity that identifies the Root Cause of a Incident or Problem. RCA typically concentrates on IT Infrastructure failures.

Service Capacity Management
[Service Capacity Management] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) The Activity responsible for understanding the Performance and Capacity of IT Services. The Resources used by each IT Service and the pattern of usage over time are collected, recorded, and analysed for use in the Capacity Plan. See Business Capacity Management, Component Capacity Management.

Service Catalogue
[Service Catalogue] -(Service Design) A database or structured Document with information about all Live IT Services, including those available for Deployment. The Service Catalogue is the only part of the Service Portfolio published to Customers, and is used to support the sale and delivery of IT Services. The Service Catalogue includes information about deliverables, prices, contact points, ordering and request Processes. See Contract Portfolio.

Service Continuity Management
[Service Continuity Management] - Synonym for IT Service Continuity Management.

Service Design Package
[Service Design Package] - (Service Design) Document(s) defining all aspects of an IT Service and its Requirements through each stage of its Lifecycle. A Service Design Package is produced for each new IT Service, major Change, or IT Service Retirement.

Service Desk
[Service Desk] - (Service Operation) The Single Point of Contact between the Service Provider and the Users. A typical Service Desk manages Incidents and Service Requests, and also handles communication with the Users.

Service Improvement Plan
[Service Improvement Plan] - (Continual Service Improvement) SIP, A formal Plan to implement improvements to a Process or IT Service.

Service Knowledge Management System
[Service Knowledge Management System] - (Service Transition) A set of tools and databases that are used to manage knowledge and information. The SKMS includes the Configuration Management System, as well as other tools and databases. The SKMS stores, manages, updates, and presents all information that an IT Service Provider needs to manage the full Lifecycle of IT Services.

Service Level Agreement
[Service Level Agreement] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) An Agreement between an IT Service Provider and a Customer. The SLA describes the IT Service, documents Service Level Targets, and specifies the responsibilities of the IT Service Provider and the Customer. A single SLA may cover multiple IT Services or multiple Customers. See Operational Level Agreement.

Service Level Management
[Service Level Management] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) The Process responsible for negotiating Service Level Agreements, and ensuring that these are met. SLM is responsible for ensuring that all IT Service Management Processes, Operational Level Agreements, and Underpinning Contracts, are appropriate for the agreed Service Level Targets. SLM monitors and reports on Service Levels, and holds regular Customer reviews.

Service Level Requirement
[Service Level Requirement] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) A Customer Requirement for an aspect of an IT Service. SLRs are based on Business Objectives and are used to negotiate agreed Service Level Targets.

Service Portfolio Management
[Service Portfolio Management] - (Service Strategy) The Process responsible for managing the Service Portfolio. Service Portfolio Management considers Services in terms of the Business value that they provide.

Service Request
[Service Request] - (Service Operation) A request from a User for information, or advice, or for a Standard Change or for Access to an IT Service. For example to reset a password, or to provide standard IT Services for a new User. Service Requests are usually handled by a Service Desk, and do not require an RFC to be submitted. See Request Fulfilment.

[Serviceability] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) The ability of a Third Party Supplier to meet the terms of their Contract. This Contract will include agreed levels of Reliability, Maintainability or Availability for a Configuration Item.

Single Point of Contact
[Single Point of Contact] - (Service Operation) Providing a single consistent way to communicate with an Organisation or Business Unit. For example, a Single Point of Contact for an IT Service Provider is usually called a Service Desk.

Single Point of Failure
[Single Point of Failure] - (Service Design) Any Configuration Item that can cause an Incident when it fails, and for which a Countermeasure has not been implemented. A SPOF may be a person, or a step in a Process or Activity, as well as a Component of the IT Infrastructure.

Standard Change
[Standard Change] - (Service Transition) A pre-approved Change that is low Risk, relatively common and follows a Procedure or Work Instruction. For example password reset or provision of standard equipment to a new employee. RFCs are not required to implement a Standard Change, and they are logged and tracked using a different mechanism, such as a Service Request. See Change Model.

Underpinning Contract
[Underpinning Contract] - (Service Design) A Contract between an IT Service Provider and a Third Party. The Third Party provides goods or Services that support delivery of an IT Service to a Customer. The Underpinning Contract defines targets and responsibilities that are required to meet agreed Service Level Targets in an SLA.

[Urgency] - (Service Transition) (Service Design) A measure of how long it will be until an Incident, Problem or Change has a significant Impact on the Business. For example a high Impact Incident may have low Urgency, if the Impact will not affect the Business until the end of the financial year. Impact and Urgency are used to assign Priority.

Verification and Audit
[Verification and Audit] - (Service Transition) The Activities responsible for ensuring that information in the CMDB is accurate and that all Configuration Items have been identified and recorded in the CMDB. Verification includes routine checks that are part of other Processes. For example, verifying the serial number of a desktop PC when a User logs an Incident. Audit is a periodic, formal check.

Vital Business Function
[Vital Business Function] - (Service Design) VBF, A Function of a Business Process which is critical to the success of the Business. Vital Business Functions are an important consideration of Business Continuity Management, IT Service Continuity Management and Availability Management.

Warm Standby
[Warm Standby] - Synonym for Intermediate Recovery.

[Workaround]- (Service Operation) Reducing or eliminating the Impact of an Incident or Problem for which a full Resolution is not yet available. For example by restarting a failed Configuration Item. Workarounds for Problems are documented in Known Error Records. Workarounds for Incidents that do not have associated Problem Records are documented in the Incident Record.


Zügige Wiederherstellung
[Intermediate Recovery] - (Service Design) Eine Wiederherstellungsoption, die auch als „Warm Standby“ bezeichnet wird. Dabei erfolgt die Wiederherstellung des IT Service in einem Zeitraum zwischen 24 und 72 Stunden. Bei der zügigen Wiederherstellung werden in der Regel bewegliche oder feste Anlagen eingesetzt, die über Computersysteme und Netzwerkkomponenten verfügen. Im Rahmen des IT Service Continuity Plans müssen die Hardware und Software konfiguriert und Daten wiederhergestellt werden.

Zugrunde liegende Ursache
[Root Cause] - (Service Operation) Die grundsätzliche oder ursprüngliche Ursache für einen Incident oder ein Problem.

[Reliability] - (Service Design) (Continual Service Improvement) Ein Richtwert, der wiedergibt, wie lange ein Configuration Item oder IT Service seine vereinbarte Funktion ohne Unterbrechung ausführen kann. Wird in der Regel als MTBF oder MTBSI angegeben. Der Begriff „Zuverlässigkeit“ bezeichnet auch die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass Prozesse, Funktionen etc. den gewünschten Output erzielen. Siehe Verfügbarkeit.